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About Cataracts

About Cataracts


Cataract is a condition of the eye that often occurs naturally with age. The eye contains a lens that focuses light rays on the retina of the eye, which is transmitted to the brain in order to see. Patients affected by cataracts have a cloudy lens limiting vision that may become denser with time. This condition gradually worsens affecting the vision from blurry to complete loss of sight. 

cataracts treatment in tamil nadu

Cataract is a reversible condition where most people regain their vision with the help of microsurgery. It is a common procedure and patients can return home in an hour after the surgery.

Causes

Cataract is typically caused due to the aging of the eyes. Some of the other factors leading to cataract formation are given below,

  • Diseases such as diabetes, kidney diseases, glaucoma, and smoking.
  • Prolonged usage of certain medications such as steroids.
  • Injury to the eye, also known as a traumatic cataract.
  • Inflammation inside the eyes can also lead to cataracts. This condition is termed as Uveitis.

Symptoms

Patients suffering from cataracts might show the following symptoms,

  • A blurred or dim vision that might get worse gradually

    Cataract is a condition of the eye that often occurs naturally with age. The eye contains a lens that focuses light rays on the retina of the eye, which is transmitted to the brain in order to see. Patients affected by cataracts have a cloudy lens limiting vision that may become denser with time. This condition gradually worsens affecting the vision from blurry to complete loss of sight.

    Cataract is a reversible condition where most people regain their vision with the help of microsurgery. It is a common procedure and patients can return home in an hour after the surgery.

  • Causes

    Cataract is typically caused due to the aging of the eyes. Some of the other factors leading to cataract formation are given below,

    • Diseases such as diabetes, kidney diseases, glaucoma, and smoking.
    • Prolonged usage of certain medications such as steroids.
    • Injury to the eye, also known as a traumatic cataract.
    • Inflammation inside the eyes can also lead to cataracts. This condition is termed as Uveitis.

    Symptoms

    Patients suffering from cataracts might show the following symptoms,

    • A blurred or dim vision that might get worse gradually
    • Sensitivity to light and glare
    • Difficulty seeing at night
    • Double or multiple vision in one eye
    • Difficulty in reading as well as distant vision
    • Fading or yellowing of colors
    • Frequent changes in eyeglasses or lens

    Types of Cataracts

    Different types of cataracts are listed below,

    • Nuclear Cataracts is the medical condition that affects the center of the lens causing nearsightedness. The eye lens turns yellow to brown gradually leading to the patient having difficulty in distinguishing colors.
    • Cortical Cataracts affect the outer edge of the eye lens. In this condition, streaks appear on the edge, which slowly reaches the center blocking light rays to enter the eyes.
    • Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts cause opaque formation near the back of the lens leading to reduced vision in bright light, difficulty in reading and cause glare. This condition progresses faster than other types of cataracts.   
    • Congenital Cataracts may be genetic or caused due to trauma or intrauterine infections in children.

    Risk Factors

    Some known risk factors related to cataracts are as follows,

    • Increasing age
    • Diabetes
    • Excessive exposure to sunlight
    • Smoking
    • Obesity
    • High blood pressure
    • Previous eye injury or inflammation
    • Previous eye surgery
    • Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications
    • Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol

    Prevention

    Cataracts cannot be prevented completely. However, the condition can be delayed by certain methods such as,

    • Getting a regular eye check up helps to detect cataracts at an early stage and treat the condition better.
    • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol as it increases the risk of the formation of cataracts.
    • Eating a healthy meal with plenty of fruits and vegetables provides vitamins and nutrients to maintain the health of the eyes.
    • Wearing sunglasses prevents direct UVB rays to enter the eyes which may contribute to the development of cataracts.
  • Sensitivity to light and glare
  • Difficulty seeing at night
  • Double or multiple vision in one eye
  • Difficulty in reading as well as distant vision
  • Fading or yellowing of colors
  • Frequent changes in eyeglasses or lens

Types of Cataracts

Different types of cataracts are listed below,

  • Nuclear Cataracts is the medical condition that affects the center of the lens causing nearsightedness. The eye lens turns yellow to brown gradually leading to the patient having difficulty in distinguishing colors.
  • Cortical Cataracts affect the outer edge of the eye lens. In this condition, streaks appear on the edge, which slowly reaches the center blocking light rays to enter the eyes.
  • Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts cause opaque formation near the back of the lens leading to reduced vision in bright light, difficulty in reading and cause glare. This condition progresses faster than other types of cataracts.   
  • Congenital Cataracts may be genetic or caused due to trauma or intrauterine infections in children.

Risk Factors

Some known risk factors related to cataracts are as follows,

  • Increasing age
  • Diabetes
  • Excessive exposure to sunlight
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • High blood pressure
  • Previous eye injury or inflammation
  • Previous eye surgery
  • Prolonged use of corticosteroid medications
  • Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol

Prevention

Cataracts cannot be prevented completely. However, the condition can be delayed by certain methods such as,

  • Getting a regular eye check up helps to detect cataracts at an early stage and treat the condition better.
  • Avoid smoking and drinking alcohol as it increases the risk of the formation of cataracts.
  • Eating a healthy meal with plenty of fruits and vegetables provides vitamins and nutrients to maintain the health of the eyes.
  • Wearing sunglasses prevents direct UVB rays to enter the eyes which may contribute to the development of cataracts.

Authored By Dr. Lalit Kumar

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